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Most of the credit for the following goes to The Encyclopedia Potterica whose keepers actually sat down and did all the work to collect this information. All I did was go through and pull out the names and purposes for the spells (and then added in a few from Goblet of Fire that their list was missing). I'm putting it up on my web page to help out anyone else who would like this quick-n-dirty reference. But if it wasn't for the EP's hard work I wouldn't have done this in the first place.

Accio
Bring something to you (often followed by the name of the thing in question, ie "Accio wand")

Alohomora
Unlock a door

Aparecium
Make invisible ink appear

Avada Kedavra
The Killing Curse, kills its victim instantly, one of the 3 curses most heavily punished by wizarding law, has no cure.

Bubble-Head Charm
Forms a bubble around caster's head which allows them to breathe underwater

Crucio
The Cruciatus Curse, causes the victim unbearable pain, one of the 3 curses most heavily punished by wizarding law.

Conjunctivitus Curse
Weakens victim's eyesight

Densaugeo
Causes victim's teeth to grow

Diffindo
Makes something rip apart

Dissendium
A spell which opened a secret passage inside a statue

Engorgio
Make something grow bigger

Ennervate
Make someone who has passed out wake up

Expecto Patronum
A spell to guard you from the dementors by conjuring a patronus

Expelliarmus
Disarming charm

Ferula
A spell to create a sling

Finite Incantatem
A charm used by Snape to end commotion by students

Furnunculus
Creates large, ugly boils on the victim

Impedimenta
Casts the Impediment Curse which makes something freeze in place

Imperio
The Imperious Curse, gives the caster total control over the victim, one of the 3 curses most heavily punished by wizarding law.

Impervious
A magic spell Hermione put on Harry's glasses so they would repell water during a Quidditch match

Incendio
Starts a fire

Jelly-Legs Jinx
Makes the victim's legs wobble until the counter-jinx is performed

Locomoto mortis
Spell for the leg-locker curse

Lumos
A charm to light the end of a wand (acts as a flashlight)

Morsmordre
Conjures Voldemort's symbol (aka The Dark Mark)

Nox
A charm used to turn out the light on your wand after you say lumos

Obliviate
Memory charm used by Lockhart which backfires

Peskipiksi Pesternomi
Spell used by Lockhart to get rid of destructive Cornish pixies (it doesn't work)

Petrificus Totalus
Spell for the Full Body-Bind, causing the subject to lie motionless (petrified)

Point Me
Casts the Four-Point Spell which turns the caster's wand into a compass

Priori Incantato
A spell which, when placed on a wand, causes the wand to identify the most recent spell that it performed

Reducto
Casts the Reductor Curse which blasts solid objects out of caster's way

Relashio
Sends out sparks, used by Harry against grindylows underwater and actually sent a jet of boiling water at them instead

Reparo
Fix something that just broke

Rictusempra
A tickling charm

Ridikulus
A charm to make a boggart take on characteristics of a person or object the sayer is thinking of

Shield Charm
Casts a temporary invisible wall around caster and deflects minor curses

Sonorus
Projects caster's voice out over a crowd

Stupefy
Stunning spell

Tarantallegra
A dancing spell

Waddiwasi
A spell used by Prof. Lupin to send gum up Peeve's nose

Wingardium Leviosa
A spell to make things fly

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